With such a late freeze-up, the ice may be precariously thin when the summer melt season arrives.
“…I’d expect this unusual pattern may significantly affect sea ice thickness/volume this month,” Labe said.
“This may have implications going forward into the 2017 melt season.”
The slow growth in sea ice this winter is in part a legacy of the near-record ice melt during the summer and fall of this year, with sea ice reaching the second-lowest extent on record in late September.
Ice cover was so scant that a sailboat with little ice protection at all managed to circumnavigate the Arctic — through the Northeast and Northwest Passages — without getting stuck in an ice floe.
Areas of open water absorb more of the sun’s incoming radiation compared to ice covered regions, making them heat up and release more water vapor into the atmosphere. These waters take longer to cool back down once the Arctic winter sets in, thereby delaying ice formation, and the evaporation that takes place can also warm the atmosphere.
“The ocean has got to lose that heat,” says Mark Serreze, the director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), in Boulder, Colorado.
In addition to this, weather patterns seem to be stuck in a rut, continuously favoring unusually warm conditions in the Arctic, while a vast expanse of land from Siberia to eastern Asia freezes.
“There is a double whammy here,” Serreze told Mashable. “Ice growth is slow because of the high sea surface temperatures and the atmospheric circulation bringing in the heat.”
According to Serreze, last fall and winter were also “extremely warm” compared to normal, making this late-year spike stand out even more. “It is kind of unusual to have this second go around of this,” he said.
“There are some pretty crazy things going on in the Arctic right now, and we’re still trying to figure it all out.”
BONUS: NASA timelapse shows just how quickly our Arctic sea ice is disappearing